• Portraits in Nature

    Portraits In Nature
    In the City of Trees, the beauty in nature that is sought by photographers and quiet inspiration found in paintings, is often that which is unruly – a loose diversity of overgrown tangle and hidden habitat. William Land Park in Sacramento is dear to many people, and, in my family, 6 generations (past and present) have enjoyed family picnics, and walks.

    People used to go to parks to be with nature, to be with each other, and for quiet, to see beautiful exotic plantings and gardens, enjoy a multitude of reasons for photography, walk with pets, or enjoy baseball, golf, and picnics.

    Well the quiet is gone…. Land Park has become an Industrialized Zone.

    I do give credit to Volunteers both independent and the groups that care for the nature and beauty that is Land Park! Thank you, Thank you, THANK YOU!

    The Lady Banks Rose Arbor, William Land Park

    April 2020

    I’ve watched hundreds of people of all ethnic groups with families photograph their life events, graduation, marriage, and family portraits – wearing elegant attire, and they come to photograph newborns, a grandchild’s portrait under the surrounding drape of these beautiful white and yellow roses – which in their vine nature, for years provided a winter refuge for many hundreds of birds!

    One of my CONCERNS as stated in the Public Comments I submitted by email to the City of Sacramento, is habitat loss (shelter, food or foraging, and breeding and raising young).

    Listed as 4) the concern is that the timing of habitat loss affecting seasonal survival of resident or migrating avian species, and the time required for sufficient habitat recovery, requires consideration to avoid the impacts of scheduled work imposed by the recent pace of over-mechanization. As shown in these photos, the whole arbor was stripped bare – during partial repairs seen at left of center below. (1940 WPA Rock Garden and Lady Banks Rose Arbor), at William Land Park, near Fairytale Town.

    December 2020

    I have one picture from March 28, 2022  

    The first week of April 2022, the regrowth of the Lady Banks Rose at the 1940 WPA rock pillar arbor (a hanging rose garden refuge for birds through the years) suffered an untimely cutback.

    The thornless vines – long vines, with trailing roses of Rosa banksiae in blooming cascades, were pruned. The vines of these thornless roses, could have been woven through the wooden arbor very easily.  They were cut back to the main stem just before the onset of winter two years ago in December 2020 – and  I’ve no idea where all the birds went. The Rosa banksiae were/are just now coming back.

    The photos below depict the Rosa banksiae, in the Spring – March 14, 2020 and previous Autumn – October of 2019 – when the Lady Banks’s rose served as a bird refuge. The first Lady banks rose came to America from Scotland, as a cutting in 1887. it is one of only a few naturally occurring thornless roses.

    In days of yore – the substructure of branched thornless vines provided a
    refuge for daily songbird populations.

    March 2020
    October 2019

    The sounds of nature, birdsongs, have been greatly diminished.

    I have put together this Blog Page as an observation:


    Pizza Parks And Mandolins

    A Look At Sacramento’s Land Park In Spring 2022 Documenting:

    The Loss of Redwood Trees at William Land Park,

    Glyphosate Herbicide Overuse and Overspray,

    WPA Rock Garden Rose Arbor Habitat Loss,


    The following short film clips pretty well depict my concerns, while this Blog page explains those concerns in detail, and as Public Comments submitted to the City of Sacramento. Tom DiFiore

    William Land Park Springtime and Herbicides

    The application of copious amounts of glyphosate herbicide anywhere at Land Park should cease. It’s a risk to public safety at the very least – and pets and wildlife. Sprayed vegetation remains wet for 20 minutes to a half hour in Spring, on a cool morning and pets may be at risk if they touch or eat plants that are still wet with spray from products containing glyphosate. Animals exposed to products with glyphosate may drool, vomit, have diarrhea, lose their appetite, or seem sleepy.

    April 6, 2022 Just one of hundreds of trees in William Land Park sprayed and over-sprayed with glyphosate.


    Recognize Glyphosate Overspray

    I have begun to wonder how much acreage is made up of these glyphosate dead zones at the base of hundreds of trees at Land Park, and along the curbs. We often hear how glyphosate degrades in soils quickly, or dissipates in water, well, it’s not really that simple. When glyphosate degrades, the metabolite it leaves behind is called AMPA – but unlike glyphosate, AMPA has been classified as persistent in soils, with a typical half-life of 151 days, but varying from 76 to 240 days depending on field conditions” with known long-term impacts to plants and wildlife.


    William Land Park Airborne Pollutants, and Dust Storms 

    The photos that begin this 4 1/2 minute video were taken October 9, 2020., while the video clips that make up the bulk of the film, were recorded 19 days later. I don’t always get out to Land Park, but two dust storms in October?

    Sacramento, Land Park, Redwood Herbicide – A one minute video, that perhaps adds perspective to the CONCERN: Why Are Land Park’s Majestic Redwoods Dying?


    How Much Herbicide Is Enough?

    This 36 second video clip begs to ask, how much is enough? 

    The square footage of herbicide sprayed soil surface area around trees and along curbs and roadways is growing, widening as can be seen in the videos and photos on this blog.

    While showing both the volume and the amount of time required for the application of glyphosate based herbicide to even one side, or half of the ground area around the base of one tree, more questions arise:

    Why so much? Why at all? How many trees total? 

    Tom DiFiore

    …I also bake!

    Pizza crust
  • Land Park, Sacramento, Public Comments: Trees, Herbicides, Air Pollutants

    Environmental and Public Safety Impacts Related to Over-mechanization of Maintenance at Land Park – Title Page, Introduction, Concerns, Comments Date: 04/ 17/22

    From: Tom DiFiore, Land Park Resident
    Everybody’s Neighbor
    pavonina@protonmail.com

    To: Department of Youth, Parks, & Community Enrichment
    Phone: 311 (outside the City 264-5011) E-Mail: 311@cityofsacramento.org
    Parks Project Manager: J.P. Tindell, 916-808-1955, jptindell@cityofsacramento.org
    Raymond Costantino, Planning and Development Manager(916) 808-1941, RCostantino@cityofsacramento.org
    Dana Repan, Senior Planner(916) 808-2762, drepan@cityofsacramento.org
    Brianna Moland, Associate Planner (916) 808-6188, Bmoland@cityofsacramento.org
    Brenda Kee, Contracts and Compliance Specialist (916) 808-1923, BKee@cityofsacramento.org

    Regarding: Environmental and Public Safety Impacts due to Over-mechanization of Maintenance at Land Park


    CONCERNS: 1) Land Park’s “Majestic Redwoods” are dying 2) The expanding daily use of ‘new’ truck routes through Land Park by Maintenance Staff Compacting Soils at the Root Zone of Redwoods and other trees 3) Overuse and Overspray of Herbicide at Land Park with no warning to visitors or the local community 4) Loss of wildlife habitat to avian species.

    Land Park Maintenance (staff or Contracts) fail to meet guidelines, or;
    “Demonstrate the many essential personal, social, environmental and economic benefits provided by Parks and Recreation Services, as provided for in Park Design Documents online at:

    https://www.cityofsacramento.org//media/Corporate/Files/ParksandRec/parks-planning/masterplan2005-2010.pdf?la=en


    I request that The City of Sacramento peruse these Comments and Concerns and the blog page of additional photographs and videos (link attached) and seriously consider a review of Park Maintenance Directives which seem to contravene current and historical guidance, including but not limited to: Park Design, in which guiding documents state:


    “Provide one main park entry, which gives a sense of arrival, and entry to the park. Provide the following at the park entry, the park name sign, in a planted area with flowering trees, special paving, and possibly drop-off seating.”
    “Provide a separate entry for maintenance vehicles away from the main pedestrian park entry.”


    “The City shall strive to emphasize unique and innovative design and promote individual character in the design of each park site. Sites, facilities, structures or landscapes of historic or cultural significance within each park shall be identified and included where possible in the park design.”


    “Where space allows, provide tree grouping in groves rather than in singles or rows in equal intervals, unless the design dictates otherwise. • Provide a twelve-foot (12’) clearance between the tree trunk and the edge of hardscape. • Provide a twenty-foot (20’) minimum clearance between trees, or between trees and other vertical site improvements in turfed areas unless project manager approves a differing width.”


    “Obtain soils fertility test and report as required in project specifications. Selection and placement of trees within park land shall be reviewed and approved by the project manager or Landscape Architecture Section.”
    https://www.cityofsacramento.org//media/Corporate/Files/ParksandRec/parks-planning/ppdd-park-design-guidelines.pdf?la=en

    Introduction: The attached pages of text are statements providing evidence and backed up with photos and short videos online, documenting the stated concerns.


    As guidance towards stating my concerns, the above paragraphs are taken from the Sacramento Park Design Guidelines and other documents online.

    This all began with my concerns that Land Park’s “Majestic Redwoods” are dying due to negligence encapsulated in the Standard Operating Procedures and daily routine patterns and practices of Land Park staff or contracted maintenance personnel. I’ve now added the Overuse and Overspray of Glyphosate Herbicide at Land Park to this list – a total of 4 documented and related concerns.
    Tom DiFiore

    I have documented as best I can, and can show that the Land Park Maintenance Staff or Landscape Maintenance Contracts, are in violation of the Spirit declared in guiding documents or stated policy, of the economic and educational, cultural and environmental value of Sacramento Regional and Neighborhood Parks) and thus compete against the cultural use of the Park – with hurried daily performance and use of larger, heavier equipment, the over-mechanization taking place in the last few years, is the most significant stressor to Land Park’s “Majestic Redwoods” and is significant enough, in fact, to imperil these Redwood trees.


    Every possible shortcut to logged hours seems to be the focus of changed maintenance schedules which has led to the increased speeds of maintenance vehicles 1) through the Park Avenues 2) across the Park Landscape 3) across the root zone of many tree species’ mainly causing soil compaction at the root zone, but especially around and through the Redwoods. There is also, 4) increased use of large tractor and vehicular leaf blowers on the streets blowing toxic dust clouds as high as the trees and the desiccation of the leaf surfaces 5) piles of wood chips have been left for years which heat up the soils and block oxygen transport to the root zone 6) excessive use of backpack leaf blowers throughout the areas of Land Park and the WPA Rock Garden, impacting photosynthesis and nutrient uptake of the understory and shrubs, 7) excessive use of all forms of backpack, tractor, or trailer mounted leaf blowers create both noise pollution and airborne particulate matter impacting respiratory function in wildlife, pets, and people. Lastly; 8) heavy vehicles with trailers drive everywhere throughout the park landscape – to empty trashcans, maintain restrooms, for quick access by Park employees to restrooms, and routine time-saving shortcuts across the green landscape.

    Thank you all for your time in reading this prepared statement of concerns.
    Tom DiFiore
    916-775-5270

    Land Park is Losing It’s Majestic Redwoods


    Soil Compaction at the Root Zone, and Desiccation on the Leaf


    Fog … Has been replaced with dirt and dust, road film, dried petroleum residue, microscopic fragments of tire wear, disc brake wear particles (emissions), the litter fall from all species of plants, parched runoff of soil erosion in the gutters, concrete and asphalt dust from parking lots. This toxic mix is all but crushed, and pulverized, and blown upward in swirling clouds rising over the heights of the trees – all but the tallest Redwoods in Land Park – all continually blown (by back pack blowers, or tractor mounted or trailer mounted blowers) into the air in dust storms.


    Incorporated in full by reference, are the following research and studies (all data source linked)


    “As massive and timeless as coast redwood trees may seem to be on the outside, beneath the surface the roots of the tree are somewhat fragile. Most of the roots of a redwood tree are only three to ten feet below the soil surface. The shallow root systems extend over one hundred feet from the base, intertwining with the roots of other redwoods. This increases their stability during strong winds and floods. In addition, of course, the roots are an integral part of the tree’s ability to pump water and nutrients into the tree to help it grow. Soil compaction caused by standing next to a redwood harms the roots. Damage is also caused by people stepping directly onto the tree. Broken bark leaves the redwoods vulnerable to insects and disease.”
    https://www.nps.gov/redw/learn/news/stoutree.htm

    “Trees suck water upward through microscopic pipes called xylem. As water molecules evaporate from the pores of leaves at the top of the tree, other molecules are pulled up from the roots to replace them, in a journey that takes a few weeks from root to treetop. Redwoods, more than any other tree, can move water to great heights, against tremendous forces of gravity and frictional resistance.”
    https://www.backpacker.com/stories/above-beyond/

    “Compaction destroys soil structure, thus increasing density, carbon dioxide concentrations (plant roots need oxygen to live and grow) and heat build-up. Additionally, it creates surface runoff rather than allowing water to penetrate the roots. Compaction subsequently decreases the amount of large pore space available, as well as oxygen in the soil, water penetration, and nutrient influx.”


    “When compaction increases soil density, root elongation is inhibited, causing poor development of root systems essential for summer survival. This damage is more severe in drier, heavier soils.”


    “Plant roots need oxygen to survive, and as the density of a compacted soil increases, carbon dioxide and other toxic gasses do not readily move from the root system. Their concentration can build up to the point that they actually become toxic to the root. Compaction is very much a surface phenomenon affecting mainly the top 4 inches of soil. Compacted soils do not allow rapid water penetration, causing increased runoff.”


    “Compacted soils are hotter in the summer and colder in the winter because of the conductivity of tight soil particles. Lower temperatures in the spring could result in less root growth, delayed green-up and even winter- kill. Porosity of compacted soil is less. Both the numbers of pores and their size are decreased. Small pores in soil are usually filled with water, so water begins to replace air in a compacted soil. In the absence of air, plant root cannot actively absorb nutrients, causing plant decline. Pathogenic fungus organisms thrive in higher soil temperatures in the presence of a lack of oxygen. Thus, the probability of summer disease problems is increased in a compacted soil.”
    https://www.plantanswers.com/garden_column/march04/2.htm

    The Land Park Redwoods are not to be considered Trees in Planting Strips!
    Research shows that ”Trees in planting strips have a higher mortality rate than the lawn trees in Land Park since only 56% of the trees dated back to original planting compared to 66% of the lawn trees. Over 94% of lawn trees are in fair or better condition compared to 79% of the planting strip trees. The average DBH and crown diameters were again smaller for trees in planting strips compared to lawn trees.” Page 9
    https://www.landpark.orgwp……..William_Land_Park_History_Brochure.pdf

    Use this link:
    https://tinyurl.com/y9e72jd4

    In the 2015 Research Paper “Factors affecting long-term mortality of residential shade trees: evidence from Sacramento, California” It was found that: ”Urban tree survival is essential to sustain the ecosystem services of urban forests and monitoring is needed to accurately assess benefits. While some urban forestry studies have reported street tree survival, little is known about the factors influencing residential yard tree survival, especially over the long-term. We assessed residential shade tree survival in Sacramento, California over 22 years. Tree survival data were collected through field surveys and aerial photo interpretation. Survival analysis was used to evaluate longitudinal tree survivorship.”


    “Our observed mortality was substantially higher than initial projections that were used to estimate long-term energy saving performance of the Sacramento Shade program. We found that higher mortality during the establishment phase was associated with greater number of trees delivered and with planting in low and high net property value properties (compared to those with medium net property value). For the post-establishment phase, trees with small mature size – those planted in backyards and those in properties with very unstable “homeownership” were more likely to die. (Replace the word ”homeownership” with “Management” and read again.”
    https://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/mcpherson/psw_2015_mcpherson004_ko.pdf

    CONCERN: There’s plenty of pavement for maintenance staff to drive around on, though the hurried pace employed by maintenance staff could be a danger to the public.

    Soil Compaction occurs because of Visitors footsteps sure, but especially, heavy equipment (think – Golf course expediency hurrying across property access routes and riding mowers that zip around the tree trunks and over the root zone of many trees inclusive of Redwoods) along with the weight of 2-3 ton pickup trucks with trailers bouncing around everywhere – compacting the soil by forcing soil particles closer together. Oh, and then there is the herbicide spray truck which seems to have its own route and drives from tree to tree, Also compacting the soil.


    Consequently, compacted soil makes it difficult for…
    • Water to flow through to the tree roots, causing runoff and dehydration.
    • Roots to get enough nutrients, leading to slowed growth.
    • The tree to thrive because of the lack of water and limited air flow.

    Signs of soil compaction:
    • Poor growth and reduced number and size of leaves
    • Branch dieback
    • Susceptibility to pest problems and environmental stress
    • Failure of tree to respond to proper care


    Test: Soil Compaction and Depth (see Photos)
    In “The Effect of Excessive Tourist Travel on the California Redwood Parks”published in 1929, “Meinecke found that soil compaction by tourists had a negative impact on tree roots and his recommendations for amelioration were both logical and laced with philosophical ideals. A recent Study, revisited that report with a modern perspective and reviewed his findings and suggestions, and compared his ideas with modern research and tourism management practices.”


    Incorporated by Reference in full, are both the original “The Effect of Excessive Tourist Travel on the California Redwood Parks”, published in 1929, and “A modern perspective on Meinecke’s 1929 assessment of tourist impacts on redwoods”the update by Ross H Martin, Joshua B Hodge, Clayton J Whitesides July 2021.

    CONCERN: Why are heavy vehicles (3-4 tons) allowed or directed to drive around, the root zones of the Land Park Redwoods, daily, in plain view, as along Land Park Drive, (across from the Sacramento Zoo, where it can be seen that the Redwoods to either side of the “two deeply rutted tracks” are dying?
    Management Option: Define the Critical Root Zone Radius (where no vehicles, etc. should be rolling over the root zone) which may include managing to develop tree root protection zones to reduce compaction, and/or property vehicular access based on seasonal temporal rains, golf course lawn watering, drought impacts, and fog drip.


    Critical root zone radius distances calculated by tree diameter at breast height Tree diameter Critical root zone radius Total protection zone diameter, • Each tree has a critical root zone (CRZ) that varies by species and site conditions. • CRZ is an area equal to 1 foot radius from the base of the tree’s trunk for each inch of the tree’s diameter at DBH (4.5’ above grade)
    https://nfs.unl.edu/documents/……..2017%20TCW.pdf

    Use this link:

    https://tinyurl.com/2p855t6z


    QUESTION: What are Sacramento’s General Plan and Policies or Guidelines regarding construction sites on City/County Parks, and or maintenance procedures, that would give direction in protection of iconic trees, including their value in carbon offsets, and pollution mitigation?


    The City of Santa Monica Community Maintenance Department Public Landscape Division 2600 Ocean Park Blvd. Santa Monica, CA 90405 has:
    Policy 2.5 of the City’s Community Forest Management Plan mandates that measures be implemented for the protection of existing City trees during construction activities. During construction projects, Tree Protection Zones must be established around all City trees prior to the commencement of construction activities.


    “When designing a new project it is important to determine how the structure will be built and how contractors can access the site without harming any existing trees. This is done by calculating the Critical Root Zone (CRZ). This measurement is oftentimes consistent with the “dripline” of the tree which is the greatest extent of the tree’s branches.”


    “For some trees with narrow crowns, this distance is not near enough to insure that the critical tree roots will be protected. To accurately determine the critical root zone of a narrow crowned tree, measure its trunk diameter at 4.5 feet above the ground with a diameter tape. Then multiply that number by 1.5 and express the results in feet. For example; if the tree has a trunk diameter of 24 inches then the critical root zone has a radial distance of 36 feet, or a total diameter of 72 feet across. Once the CRZ has been determined the boundary of the TPZ can then be established.”
    https://www.smgov.net/UrbanForest/TreeProtectionGuidelines.pdf

    Use this link:

    https://tinyurl.com/3t323ee6

    CONCERN: Maintenance of the Landscape at Land Park seems not only to contravene but differs significantly from City Guidelines and Policy regarding Construction Protections for trees and Urban Forests, and the Land Park Guiding Management Documents.


    QUESTION: What consultation, or MOU has the City of Sacramento had with Park Staff, or Golf Course Maintenance Staff, to insure that Negligence on the part of staff, is not a part of a larger ‘Patterns and Practices’ in place among Land Park contracts for Management of Maintenance, Tree Care, and the over-spraying of Herbicide.


    CONCERN: Soil compaction at the root zone is being caused by negligent actions of Park Staff (maintenance and trash pickup, tractor leaf blower equipment, City of Sacramento Spray truck) are among others that daily drive across the root zone of the Majestic Redwoods at William Land Park. A total of 27 redwoods appear to be impacted.


    CONCERN: Desiccation of the leaf surface, essential for water uptake – by supplemental fog water acquisition, and by transpiration, which allows for water taken in by the roots to rise to the pinnacle leaves or needles, and the absorption of carbon by the redwoods.


    The nights and mornings of fog and the City water used to keep the lawns green at the Golf Course and Land Park public access areas, would seem to be plenty to keep the Land Park Redwoods healthy, even in times of drought.

    Incorporated by Reference, and in full, are the following educational out takes:

    Water Nutrient Transport in Xylem and Phloem Tissues
    “Water is often the most limiting factor to plant growth. Therefore, plants have developed an effective system to absorb, translocate, store and utilize water. To understand water transport in plants, one first needs to understand the plants’ plumbing. Plants contain a vast network of conduits, which consists of xylem and phloem tissues. This pathway of water and nutrient transport can be compared with the vascular system that transports blood throughout the human body. Like the vascular system in people, the xylem and phloem tissues extend throughout the plant. These conducting tissues start in the roots and transect up through the trunks of trees, branching off into the branches and then branching even further into every leaf.”


    “The phloem tissue is made of living elongated cells that are connected to one another. Phloem tissue is responsible for translocating nutrients and sugars (carbohydrates), which are produced by the leaves, to areas of the plant that are metabolically active (requiring sugars for energy and growth). The xylem is also composed of elongated cells. Once the cells are formed, they die. But the cell walls still remain intact, and serve as an excellent pipeline to transport water from the roots to the leaves. A single tree will have many xylem tissues, or elements, extending up through the tree. Each typical xylem vessel may only be several microns in diameter.”


    “The physiology of water uptake and transport is not so complex either. The main driving force of water uptake and transport into a plant is transpiration of water from leaves. Transpiration is the process of water evaporation through specialized openings in the leaves, called stomates. The evaporation creates a negative water vapor pressure develops in the surrounding cells of the leaf. Once this happens, water is pulled into the leaf from the vascular tissue, the xylem, to replace the water that has transpired from the leaf. This pulling of water, or tension, that occurs in the xylem of the leaf, will extend all the way down through the rest of the xylem column of the tree and into the xylem of the roots due to the cohesive forces holding together the water molecules along the sides of the xylem tubing. (Remember, the xylem is a continuous water column that extends from the leaf to the roots.) Finally, the negative water pressure that occurs in the roots will result in an increase of water uptake from the soil.”


    “Now if transpiration from the leaf decreases, as usually occurs at night or during cloudy weather, the drop in water pressure in the leaf will not be as great, and so there will be a lower demand for water (less tension) placed on the xylem.”


    Alan Dickman, curriculum director in the biology department at the University of Oregon in Eugene, states:


    “Once inside the cells of the root, water enters into a system of interconnected cells that make up the wood of the tree and extend from the roots through the stem and branches and into the leaves. The scientific name for wood tissue is xylem; it consists of a few different kinds of cells. The cells that conduct water (along with dissolved mineral nutrients) are long and narrow and are no longer alive when they function in water transport. Some of them have open holes at their tops and bottoms and are stacked more or less like concrete sewer pipes. Other cells taper at their ends and have no complete holes. All have pits in their cell walls, however, through which water can pass. Water moves from one cell to the next when there is a pressure difference between the two.”


    “In reality, the suction that exists within the water-conducting cells arises from the evaporation of water molecules from the leaves. Each water molecule has both positive and negative electrically charged parts. As a result, water molecules tend to stick to one another; that adhesion is why water forms rounded droplets on a smooth surface and does not spread out into a completely flat film. As one water molecule evaporates through a pore in a leaf, it exerts a small pull on adjacent water molecules, reducing the pressure in the water-conducting cells of the leaf and drawing water from adjacent cells. This chain of water molecules extends all the way from the leaves down to the roots and even extends out from the roots into the soil. So the simple answer to the question about what propels water from the roots to the leaves is that the sun’s energy does it: heat from the sun causes the water to evaporate, setting the water chain in motion.”


    “Water and other materials necessary for biological activity in trees are transported throughout the stem and branches in thin, hollow tubes in the xylem, or wood tissue. These tubes are called vessel elements in hardwood or deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves in the fall), and tracheids in softwood or coniferous trees (those that retain the bulk of their most recently produced foliage over the winter). Vessel elements are joined end-to-end through perforation plates to form tubes (called vessels) that vary in size from a few centimeters to many meters in length depending on the species. Their diameters range from 20 to 800 microns. Along the walls of these vessels are very small openings called pits that allow for the movement of materials between adjoining vessels.”


    “Tracheids in conifers are much smaller, seldomly exceeding five millimeters in length and 30 microns in diameter. They do not have perforated ends, and so are not joined end-to-end into other tracheids. As a result, the pits in conifers, also found along the lengths of the tracheids, assume a more important role. They are they only way that water can move from one tracheid to another as it moves up the tree.”


    “Capillary action is a minor component of the push. Root pressure supplies most of the force pushing water at least a small way up the tree. Root pressure is created by water moving from its reservoir in the soil into the root tissue by osmosis (diffusion along a concentration gradient). This action is sufficient to overcome the hydrostatic force of the water column–and the osmotic gradient in cases where soil water levels are low.”


    “Capillary action and root pressure can support a column of water some two to three meters high, but taller trees–all trees, in fact, at maturity–obviously require more force. In some older specimens–including some species such as Sequoia, Pseudotsuga menziesii and many species in tropical rain forests–the canopy is 100 meters or more above the ground! In this case, the additional force that pulls the water column up the vessels or tracheids is evapotranspiration, the loss of water from the leaves through openings called stomata and subsequent evaporation of that water.”


    “As water is lost out of the leaf cells through transpiration, a gradient is established whereby the movement of water out of the cell raises its osmotic concentration and, therefore, its suction pressure. This pressure allows these cells to suck water from adjoining cells which, in turn, take water from their adjoining cells, and so on–from leaves to twigs to branches to stems and down to the roots–maintaining a continuous pull. To maintain a continuous column, the water molecules must also have a strong affinity for one other. This idea is called the cohesion theory. Water does, in fact, exhibit tremendous cohesive strength.”

    Trees Connect Earth To Sky
    “Trees have placed themselves in the cycle that circulates water from the soil to clouds and back. They are able to maintain water in the liquid phase up to their total height by maintaining a column of water in small hollow tubes using root pressure, capillary action and the cohesive force of water.”


    “Water and mineral nutrients–the so-called sap flow–travel from the roots to the top of the tree within a layer of wood found under the bark. This sapwood consists of conductive tissue called xylem (made up of small pipe-like cells). There are major differences between hardwoods (oak, ash, maple) and conifers (redwood, pine, spruce, fir) in the structure of xylem. In hardwoods, water moves throughout the tree in xylem cells called vessels, which are lined up end-to-end and have large openings in their ends. In contrast, the xylem of conifers consists of enclosed cells called tracheids. These cells are also lined up end-to-end, but part of their adjacent walls have holes that act as a sieve. For this reason, water moves faster through the larger vessels of hardwoods than through the smaller tracheids of conifers.”


    “Both vessel and tracheid cells allow water and nutrients to move up the tree, whereas specialized ray cells pass water and food horizontally across the xylem. All xylem cells that carry water are dead, so they act as a pipe. Xylem tissue is found in all growth rings (wood) of the tree. Not all tree species have the same number of annual growth rings that are active in the movement of water and mineral nutrients. For example, conifer trees and some hardwood species may have several growth rings that are active conductors, whereas in other species, such as the oaks, only the current years’ growth ring is functional.”


    “This unique situation comes about because the xylem tissue in oaks has very large vessels; they can carry a lot of water quickly, but can also be easily disrupted by freezing and air pockets. It’s amazing that a 200 year-old living oak tree can survive and grow using only the support of a very thin layer of tissue beneath the bark. The rest of the 199 growth rings are mostly inactive. In a coastal redwood, though, the xylem is mostly made up of tracheids that move water slowly to the top of the tree.”

    “A key factor that helps create the pull of water up the tree is the loss of water out of the leaves through a process called transpiration. During transpiration, water vapor is released from the leaves through small pores or openings called stomates. Stomates are present in the leaf so that carbon dioxide, which the leaves use to make food by way of photosynthesis, can enter. The loss of water during transpiration creates more negative water potential in the leaf, which in turn pulls more water up the tree. So in general, the water loss from the leaf is the engine that pulls water and nutrients up the tree.”


    “How can water withstand the tensions needed to be pulled up a tree? The trick is, as we mentioned earlier, the ability of water molecules to stick to each other and to other surfaces so strongly. Given that strength, the loss of water at the top of tree through transpiration provides the driving force to pull water and mineral nutrients up the trunks of trees as mighty as the redwoods.”
    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-do-large-trees-such-a/


    The following discusses how the problem of Soil Compaction at the root zone, is exacerbated, by the negative impacts to leaf wetting, by the over-mechanization of Land Park Landscape Maintenance.

    Dust Storms By Mow N Blow vs Stomata Leaf Wetting

    CONCERN: On the leaf, from the lowest branch to the pinnacle height at the crown, the needles, that once helped to nourish the tree with fog water have become a tragedy of desiccation.

    Fog has been replaced with dirt and dust, road film, dried petroleum residue, microscopic fragments of tire wear, pollen, and the pulverized litter fall from all species of plants, some likely to contain various levels of decaying residues of glyphosate (also present as AMPA) from curbside runoff or drift. This pulverized dust storm is blown upward over the tops of understory trees, the oaks, elms, and sycamores, in swirling clouds of particulate matter and pollutants that stick to leaf surfaces. (May through October)

    Ever wonder where it lands? How far does it travel? What if there is no wind? The City of Trees, has become a landscape of airborne pollutants.

    It gets worse….


    “At such towering heights, you might wonder how redwoods deliver water from their roots to the top branches. By an astonishing feat of physics, water evaporating from the tiny pores in leaves (stomata) creates enough suction through the tree’s water pipelines (xylem) to make the lift. But there is more to the story. Redwoods also absorb water from fog at all levels of the canopy through their stomata. In the dry summer, fog accounts for nearly 40% of their water uptake. This “stripping” of fog onto redwood leaves also benefits the entire redwood ecosystem, as excess water drops onto the forest floor”, and is known as Fog Drip.
    https://www.nps.gov/articles/000/coast-redwood.htm

    “Foliar uptake is not unique to any one plant species, phylogenetic lineage, or ecosystem type. However, these investigations were not comparative in the sense that they did not evaluate if foliar uptake was a common water acquisition strategy across diverse, co-occurring species within a single ecosystem. Given its clearly demonstrated physiological and ecological importance, we hypothesized that foliar uptake would be widespread among species that inhabit the coast redwood forest where fog water input is a critical water resource.”


    “Both canopy trees and understory plants of the redwood forest receive frequent nocturnal marine fog exposure during the summer rainless season. The acquisition of fog water by shallow roots that absorb fog dripped from plant crowns to the soil was considered the primary pathway of water uptake by redwood forest plants until Burgess and Dawson (2004) demonstrated that Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. (coast redwood) exhibits direct foliar uptake of fog water. If other redwood forest species also exhibit foliar uptake of fog water, the redwood forest ecosystem as a whole gains a potentially significant water subsidy even during short-duration or low-intensity fog events when water input into the soil via fog drip is low.”


    “This investigation evaluated what proportion of the dominant plant species native to the coast redwood forest ecosystem of Northern California: (1) exhibit foliar uptake, and (2) become more hydrated in response to leaf-wetting events from fog. We hypothesized that nocturnal fog exposure may improve plant hydration even in species without the capacity for foliar uptake because leaf wetness suppresses nocturnal conductance (water loss at night) and facilitates increased foliar rehydration with soil-derived stem xylem water. To test our hypotheses, we measured the capacity for foliar uptake and nocturnal stomatal conductance by ten dominant redwood forest species and evaluated the effect of crown wetting from fog on leaf hydration and plant water status.”

    Foliar Uptake Capacity
    “Eight of the ten redwood forest species demonstrated the capacity for foliar uptake during the 180-min submergence. Six of the species (P. munitum, P. menziesii, A. menziesii, S. sempervirens, V. ovatum, and P. californicum) demonstrated significant water absorption on a leaf area Basis.”

    Nocturnal Stomatal Conductance
    “Six of the ten species (P. munitum, P. menziesii, A. menziesii, V. ovatum, P. californicum, and N. densiflorus) exhibited significant (P < 0.05) nocturnal conductance above the instrument detection limit (gn; Table 2). The remaining four species (S. sempervirens, G. shallon, U. californica, and O. oregana) demonstrated no significant nocturnal conductance above the detection limit.”
    “Leaf wetting and subsequent water uptake increases foliar hydration in the majority of redwood forest species we investigated. We determined through the immersion of foliage in water that 80% of dominant redwood forest species studied exhibit leaf surface permeability to water and therefore share the capacity to absorb water directly into photosynthetic tissues (leaves and stems). This confirms that this water acquisition strategy is widespread across species in this ecosystem and is not unique to any one taxonomic group or phylogenetic lineage. The species we studied range widely in leaf morphology and growth habit (Fig. 3) from coniferous and broadleaf canopy trees (P. menziesii, A. menziesii, S. sempervirens, and N. densiflorus) to understory ferns (P. munitum and P. californicum) and broadleaf shrubs (G. shallon and V. ovatum). Interestingly, all of the species that show foliar uptake capacity reside in habitats throughout their native ranges that may or may not receive fog and therefore it seems that foliar uptake capacity is not restricted to endemic species of strictly fog-inundated redwood ecosystems.”


    “Foliar uptake increased mean leaf water content in half of the species investigated by 2–11%. This increased hydration occurred despite the fact the plants were adequately hydrated during the investigation and the water potential driving gradient across the leaf surface was therefore small. Enhanced leaf water stress increases the driving gradient for absorption and allows foliar tissues to store more water. Therefore, foliar uptake capacity may increase with moderate plant drought stress until the pathway for absorption at the leaf surface is restricted by dehydration from increased levels of drought stress.”
    “Given that foliar uptake increases foliar hydration however, frequent leaf-wetting events may actually promote foliar uptake occurrence by increasing cuticle and epidermal hydration, therefore extending the length of time surface water uptake may occur during periods of increasing soil water deficit.”


    “Leaf wetness may increase plant hydration in two ways, either by providing a direct water subsidy accessible through foliar uptake that increases tissue water content or by suppressing leaf water loss to the atmosphere and thereby facilitating more efficient foliar hydration with stem xylem water from the rooting zone. Our fog experiment provides stable isotope evidence for both mechanisms contributing to improved plant hydration in redwood forest plants.”


    “As shown in other foliar uptake studies, the isotopic composition of leaf water changes in response to the foliar absorption of exogenous water. If the plants exposed to leaf wetting from fog in this study only received water into their leaves from soil-derived stem water during the experiment, the leaf water isotopes would have decreased in the same magnitude as the control plants. Instead, the leaf water isotopesof plants with wet crowns generally decreased less, indicating the absorption of fog water.”

    The Role of Leaf-wetting Events
    “Leaf wetting occurs with high frequency throughout the year in the coast redwood forest ecosystem. While rain causes most leaf wetness during the winter and spring months (October–May) this water subsidy also significantly increases soil moisture.”


    “Therefore, the leaf wetting effects of rain on plant water status is likely dominated by root uptake during the rainy season. In contrast, leaf wetting is strongly influential during the summer rainless season when fog is the only water subsidy because fog is commonly intercepted only by the crowns of fog-exposed plants. Fog travels horizontally into redwood forests until it is intercepted by the forest canopy. Once the leaf surfaces of the overstory tree crowns become saturated, excess water drips down through the forest, wetting the crowns of the understory plants below.”


    “Most of the dominant species investigated from the redwood ecosystem show increased foliar hydration after this type of leaf-wetting event, suggesting that these species have leaves with a high sensitivity to leaf wetness that both absorb and conserve water when wet.”


    “When fog water becomes available in the rooting zone during significant fog inundation, root uptake likely contributes to fog water acquisition for all redwood forest species since plant roots are specialized for water absorption. However, determining the relative contributions of foliar versus root uptake pathways to total plant fog water acquisition proves difficult in the field. Dawson (1998) showed that all five dominant redwood forest species he investigated (S. sempervirens, P. munitum, O. oregana, G. shallon, and Rhododendron macrophyllum) contained significant quantities of fog water in their tissues during the summer months. While the mechanism by which these species acquired the fog water was not known, Dawson (1998) assumed it was via root water uptake. From our current findings, we now recognize that three out of four of these species (we did not evaluate the uptake capacity of R. macrophyllum) exhibit foliar uptake (S. sempervirens, P. munitum, and G. shallon). Further, we strongly suspect that under some circumstances the high foliar uptake capacity we found in P. munitum allows this dominant understory fern to rely completely on fog water during the summer when fog exposure is frequent (as shown in Dawson 1998).”


    “The improved water status of the redwood forest vegetation as a whole resulting from foliar uptake of fog water has important community and ecosystem-scale consequences, particularly during the otherwise rain-free summer. When plants absorb water directly from leaf surfaces, their water status can increase above the hydration state supported by soil water alone. This subsidizes the ecosystem water balance (Dawson 1998) and largely decouples plant crowns from soil water sources, therefore modifying our perspective on the unidirectional nature of the soil–plant–atmospheric continuum as recently discussed by Simonin et al. 2009.”


    “This phenomenon is not unique to redwood forests or species since the literature clearly indicates many species that inhabit a wide range of ecosystems exhibit improved plant water status (higher water potentials) following exposure to crown-wetting events.”


    “Redwood forest species generally follow the same trend, highlighting the widespread nature and physiological importance of leaf wetting for many vegetation types.”


    “Due to their high initial water status, the absolute magnitude of the water potential improvement observed in the redwood forest species in this experiment was smaller than that shown in other studies…. However, it constitutes a physiologically significant improvement in water status as shown by Burgess and Dawson (2004) and Simonin et al. 2009 for S. sempervirens and observed in P. munitum (unpublished data). Given that many physiological responses to changes in water potential are nonlinear, even small increases in water potential may greatly affect leaf function and plant growth by increasing solute transport, photosynthetic rates, and cellular expansion.”


    “In summary, redwood forest plants experience increasing soil drought when rain frequency drops severely during the summer months (Dawson 1998) and yet receive frequent leaf wetting from fog (Byers 1953; Oberlander 1956; Azevedo and Morgan 1974). These leaf-wetting events can increase the hydration state of many dominant redwood forest species, both by suppressing nocturnal conductance and providing a direct water subsidy to leaves. While our investigation only focused on plants of the redwood forest ecosystem, it seems clear that foliar water uptake is far more widespread (citations above) and that by using water deposited on their crowns, plants from many ecosystems with similar demands for water and frequent exposure to leaf-wetting events may also possess the foliar water acquisition strategy. Future research should pursue identifying how many plant species exhibit foliar uptake and respond physiologically to leaf wetting across ecosystems so that we can more accurately include this water uptake route in estimates of ecosystem water balance and also better predict the effect of changing water availability on ecosystem function.”
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2727584/

    FOG DRIP vs Soil Compaction
    Evaporation fog is caused by cold air passing over warmer water or moist land.
    Evaporation fog can be one of the most localized forms of fog. Evaporation fog is caused by cold air passing over warmer water or moist land. It often causes freezing fog, or sometimes frost. When some of the relatively warm water evaporates into low air layers, it warms the air, causing it to rise and mix with the cooler air that has passed over the surface. The warm, moist air cools as it mixes with the colder air, allowing condensation and fog to occur.

    The night time watering at Land Park of the lawns provides for local evaporation fog formation.

    Stomatal Pores and the epicuticular wax plug
    “If water accrues on plant surfaces beyond a certain storage capacity, water will drip from leaves onto soil or be funneled to soil via stemflow (Hutley et al. 1997). At a study site in northern California, Dawson (1998) estimated that 34% of the annual hydrological input was via fog drip.”


    “Dawson (1998) has previously demonstrated that fog-drip onto soils is an important supplement to shallow soil water resources. Nevertheless, S. sempervirens is one of the tallest tree species and transporting limited soil water to leaves growing at heights well over 100 m involves significant resistance due to friction and gravity. In this present study, our aim was to build on this earlier work on inputs to soil water via fog drip and investigate other potential contributions of fog to the plant’s water relations: conservation of plant water resources by suppression of transpiration and direct foliar absorption of fog water as an alternative pathway of plant hydration.”
    “Despite the mesic habitat of S. sempervirens, the leaves had a thick cuticle, stomata were recessed and each stomatal pore was capped by an epicuticular wax plug. Non-pathogenic fungal hyphae were often observed entering stomatal pores and this appeared to be more common on mature leaves where the epicuticular wax plug was degraded.”

    Leaf Wetting, Foliar Uptake of Water and Sap Flow Reversal
    “The prolonged and heavy fog event documented yields one of the clearest examples of sap flow reversal that indicates direct foliar uptake of water by a large Sequoia sempervirens specimen under field conditions. While numerous, brief fog events were accompanied by indications of sap flow reversal in all of the trees we measured, the largest magnitude and therefore most definitive flow reversals were seen when fog events were heavy for a whole daylight period. Sap flow reversals during fog events were always small in magnitude. The fact that flow reversals were measured simultaneously throughout all parts of the tree adds strength to our interpretation of the sap flow data and further suggests a whole-plant, leaf–soil flux was involved.”


    “As an aside, it is interesting to note that during reverse flow, the water potential gradient in the tree will be less than the hydrostatic gradient due to gravity.”
    “The small amounts of foliar uptake are difficult to quantify, so we employed several complimentary methods to build what we believe is a cautious estimate of fog uptake by leaves under conditions when it is maximal. Although amounts are small, they are sufficient to initiate reverse water flux throughout large trees and improve the water status of the entire plant, presumably including the root-zone. An impact sufficient to be seen at the whole plant level suggests that foliar uptake could contribute meaningfully to recharge of water stores within plants, repair of cavitated conduits drive cell expansion and even lead to increased carbon fixation. In addition, the potential for nutrient fluxes into leaves from particulates deposited on leaf surfaces or dissolved in the fog itself is raised and warrants further study.”
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2004.01207.x

    “The Contribution of Fog to the Water Relations of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don): Foliar Uptake and Prevention of Dehydration”
    “Foliar water uptake (FWU), a physiological process characterized by water entrance in liquid or vapor form through the leaf surface has also been studied from an ecological perspective. The FWU can improve the hydric status of the plant by increasing the leaf water potential, decreasing stomatal conductance, and improving the photosynthetic capacity and water-use efficiency.”
    And much of the fog intercepted by the leaves of Sequoia sempervirens drips to the ground, or runs down the stem as “Stem Flow” whereby as much as one third of the annual hydrologic input is attributed to this fog (drip) and stem flow.
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication…..prevention_of_dehydration

    https://tinyurl.com/2p88s96r

    CONCERN: Carbon Credits and Clean Air: Stressed Trees Fail
    Redwoods deal with dry conditions by closing their stomata, holes in leaves that allow water to escape and capture CO2.”


    “Big trees also capture a disproportionate amount of carbon dioxide, making them potential boons in the battle against a changing climate.”
    https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/big-trees-first-to-die-in-severe-droughts/


    “Large Redwoods can have 100 million needles – two kinds of leaf or needles: Peripheral and Axial, respectively providing for photosynthesis and water nutrients. Then high up at the canopy level, or pinnacle, the “xylem tissue” which transports water from the roots decreases, whereas “transfusion tissue” takes over nutrient transport from the needles.”


    “The peripheral leaf spends its working hours making the tree’s food, converting sunlight into sugar through photosynthesis. Its colleague, the axial leaf, does almost nothing to help with photosynthesis. Instead its specialty is to absorb water. In fact, the study found that a large redwood can absorb up to 14 gallons of water in just the first hour its leaves are wet – large redwoods have over 100 million leaves.”


    “In wet forests, photosynthesis can be inhibited by films of water covering leaf stomata when they get wet. For redwoods, the different leaf types allow the trees to get wet and still be able to photosynthesize. The peripheral leaves have a waxy coating that slows water absorption but may help them continue photosynthesis throughout the wet season.”


    “In the wet, rainy north coast, the water-absorbing leaf type is found on the tree’s lower branches, leaving the upper, sunnier levels to the photosynthesizing leaf type. That dynamic flips for redwoods in their southern range: The water-collectors live among the tree’s higher levels to take more advantage of fog and rain, which occur less often in the drier environment.”


    “Amid all the findings, the most exciting is to have found an easy and effective way to indicate redwood trees’ ability to access fog. Researchers can monitor how and if redwoods are adapting to climate conditions and a future, drier world by simply looking at the visible waxes covering the two types of leaves, something that could be captured on a cell phone camera and shared by other scientists or even members of the public.”
    https://phys.org/news/2022-03-discovery-uncovers-leaf-redwoods.html

    Pinnacle Crown Needles
    “How do tall trees supply water to pinnacle leaves? Until now, it was thought that the highest leaves of tall trees suffered from constant water deficit because the water absorbed by the roots had to be transported a long way. Even among tree physiologists, most research focused on identifying the constraints to water transport, which would define the limits of tree height.”


    “In 2012, a research group climbed the world’s tallest redwoods, and collected leaf samples from various heights. They discovered that, with increasing height in the tree, the proportion of “xylem tissue” which transports water from the roots decreased, whereas “transfusion tissue”, which stores water, increased. They inferred that in redwood, the stored water came from moisture absorbed through the leaf surface, such as fog and dew.”


    “On 9 September 2014, the group conducted field work in Akita Prefecture to determine whether similar foliar water storage functions existed in Japan’s tallest cedar trees, a close relative of redwood that can reach heights of over 50 meters. They flash-froze the leaf samples using liquid nitrogen and examined them under a cryo-scanning electron microscope. Images of the transfusion tissue revealed that the cells absorbed water and expanded during the night, then contracted during the daytime, confirming that the tallest Japanese cedars have the same foliar water storage functions as coast redwood.”


    “These observations suggest that in tall tree species such as coast redwood and Japanese cedar, water storage tissue in the treetop leaves acts as a water supply tank. The treetop leaves are prone to water deficit. The stored water counteracts constraints on water transport and helps to maintain important physiological functions such as photosynthesis.”
    https://phys.org/news/2015-11-treetop-tall-trees-extra.html

    Air Pollutant Uptake By Sacramento’s Urban Forest
    “Assuming 1990 air pollutant concentrations, model simulations estimated that approximately 1,457 metric tons of air pollutant are absorbed annually, at an implied value of US$28.7 million. The growing season daily uptake for ozone was approximately 2.4 metric tons per day, while particulate matter (< 10 μ diameter, PM10) uptake was slightly greater, at 2.7 metric tons per day. Daily uptake of NCX, and particulate matter represented 1 % to 2% of anthropogenic emissions for the county. Estimated growing-season annual air pollutant uptake rates averaged 10.9 kg/(ha land area per yr) for the entire study area, 13.9 kg/(ha land area per yr) for urban areas and 4.2 kg/(ha land area per yr) for rural areas. Pollutant uptake rates decreased with decreasing tree canopy cover, along an urban-to-rural gradient.”
    https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/61662


    “Tree planting in Sacramento, California, and in other urban areas provides energy and air-quality benefits by direct shading of buildings (reducing energy demand for cooling), by cooling the atmosphere through transpiration of water from leaves, and by the direct absorption of air pollutants by leaf surfaces (Landsberg 1981; Akbari et al. 1992; Rosenfeld et al. 1995; Sailor 1995; McPherson etal. 1994,1997a, 1997b; Simpson and McPherson 1996; Taha 1996; Simpson 1998). As urban forestry has expanded from the notion of municipal street tree management to urban ecosystem management, new partnerships among local government, electric utilities, and volunteer associations have formed. Local air-quality management districts represent a potential partner to the extent that healthy urban forests provide air-quality benefits. The aim of this research was to produce estimates of both annual air pollutant uptake by Sacramento’s urban forest and its economic value. This study was one component of the Sacramento Urban Forest Ecosystem Study (SUFES), whose goal is to determine relationships between urban forest structure and function and associated benefits and costs. These and other SUFES results are being used as inputs for a geo-referenced cost-benefit analysis of the region’s urban forest.”


    “Particulate matter less than 10 u. in diameter (PM10) is generated by such processes as agricultural tillage, construction and demolition, road or vehicle wear, fuel combustion, and atmospheric photochemical reactions involving hydrocarbons, NOx, and oxides of sulfur. Because PM10 can readily enter respiratory airways, adverse health effects can occur from acute and chronic exposures.”


    “Trees absorb gaseous pollutants through leaf stomata and bind pollutant particles onto leaf surfaces. When trees absorb gaseous or intercept particulate pollutants without aid of precipitation, it is called “dry deposition.” Deposited pollutant gases and particles can be chemically altered by plant tissues and may be metabolized or cause foliar injury (Smith 1978, 1981). Particles can be resuspended by turbulence or other mechanical action. Absorbed pollutants can be deposited to the ground surface as litter or leaf fall. Air pollutant uptake by Sacramento’s urban forest was estimated using canopy cover information from the SUFES project and dry deposition algorithms developed for regional air-quality models (Killus et al. 1984; Wesley 1989; Nowak 1994). Air pollutant deposition to buildings, streets, or other surfaces was neglected. To estimate pollutant uptake by trees, dry deposition model calculations incorporated information about air pollutant concentrations as well as meteorological and urban forest conditions. Hourly meteorological data and air pollutant concentrations, together with canopy cover areas from SUFES, were used as inputs. Model simulations were run for a season corresponding to the period when local deciduous trees are in leaf (March 15 through November 15). Hourly pollutant uptake for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NOZ), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM10) were summed to yield total monthly and annual estimates of air pollutant removal by trees in the Sacramento area.”


    Clean Air And The Monetary Value Of Sacramento’s Urban Forest

    25 years ago it averaged $5.00 per tree, per year!
    “Total monetary value of pollutant removal was estimated to be US$28.7 million ($1,500/[ha tree cover per yr]). The highest value was for ozone removal (57% of the total value) followed by PM10 (27%). With an estimated 6 million trees in the Sacramento area (McPherson 1998), the annual air pollutant removal benefit is approximately $5 per tree per year. Distribution of economic benefit by sector follows the distribution of pollutant deposition by canopy cover. For example, due to higher pollutant concentrations in urban areas, monetary value of NO2 and ozone uptake is greater in combined city and suburban sectors than in the rural sector. On the other hand, economic values of PM10 uptake in the urban and rural sectors are comparable, while SO2 uptake is slightly greater in the rural sector due to greater canopy cover and assumed homogeneous distribution of SO2.”


    “Factors that influence particulate dry deposition include atmospheric characteristics (e.g., turbulence), surface properties (e.g., canopy architecture, roughness, albedo, wetness, chemical reactivity), and properties of the depositing particle species (size, mass, chemical composition). Particle resuspension is also influenced by these factors (Davidson and Wu 1990). Based on limited literature for open-grown urban tree canopies (Dochinger 1980; Nowak 1994) we assumed a 50% resuspension rate as a base case. Resuspension rates may range from 20% (resulting in an underestimate by a factor of 1.6 from the base case) to 80% (causing an overestimate by a factor of 2.5 from the base case). In this model, we have assumed that PM10 deposition in the Sacramento area is comprised of relatively large particles, characteristic of fugitive dust from roads, construction, and agricultural activities.”


    “Pollutant deposition by land use. Over half of the tree cover in city and suburban sectors is located in the residential low-density land-use category. Another 27% to 30% of the tree cover is in the institutional and vacant/wild categories (McPherson 1998). Consequently, it is estimated that over 80% of pollutant deposition to trees in city and suburban sectors occurs in these 3 land-use categories.”


    “It is not surprising that low-density residential areas in city and suburban sectors contain a large fraction of the sector’s canopy cover. It is surprising that natural and unmanaged areas (e.g., vacant/wild) comprise another major portion of “urban” forest cover, nearly equal to that of institutional lands. This is because vacant/wild lands include riparian corridors, which are present along the American River and numerous creeks, streams, sloughs, and canals throughout the urbanized Sacramento area.”
    https://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/mcpherson/psw_1998_mcpherson006_scott.pdf


    “Although the city’s street and park trees account for only 9% of the total tree population today (McPherson, in press), nearly 150 years of management has resulted in policies, ordinances, and partnerships that have influenced the entire urban forest. In reality, the distinction between public and private vegetation is ambiguous. Residents adopt public trees as their own, and cities often remove diseased, private trees that threaten street and park trees, as well as other privately owned trees.”


    “It is the historical development of Sacramento’s urban forest that serves to enhance our understanding of its transition from City of the Plains, as it was known during the 19th century, to its more current sobriquet as the City of Trees (Kane and Alexander 1979).”


    Sacramento Chamber of Commerce 1920-1930: “Trees had become a major icon for the city’s newly emerging image: The crowning glory that is Sacramento’s, her glorious shade trees, are glorious because the city looks out for them with as much care and anxiety as a fond parent does for her offspring.” (Sacramento Bee 1939)”
    https://www.fs.fed.us/psw/topics/urban_forestry/products/cufr_20_EM98_19.pdf


    And finally, last, but not least;
    Ranger Pro Herbicide, Land Park, and You … and me, and everyone

    The Ranger Pro (generic Roundup) EPA listed Product Safety Data Sheet states: “PPE is required for early entry to treated areas that is permitted under the Worker Protection Standard and that involves contact with anything that has been treated, such as plants, soil, or water: coveralls, waterproof gloves, shoes, plus socks. and protective eyewear.”

    That’s common sense for the workers.

    CONCERN: People and their pets, are most likely to be UNPROTECTED without the above mentioned PPE required during “early entry to treated areas”. How is early entry defined? Target vegetation remains wet for 20-30 minutes at 7:30 am when people are walking pets, leaning on trees to stretch, or using the Park’s exercise stations.

    The day I was at Land Park (Thursday, April 7th, 2022) and I spoke to the Spray Applicator in the photographs, pictured with the City Truck and Spray Rig, I knew it was a herbicide, the man in the mask had said “Ranger”.

    As I continued to photograph this surprising overuse of herbicide, I noticed people were walking with their dogs through the wet vegetation sprayed just minutes before. And everyone I approached as I expressed my concern that just a few minutes ago this truck (by then a hundred yards away) had sprayed copious streams of a herbicide called Ranger Pro (generic Roundup), right where they and their dogs were walking, showing them the wet ground and vegetation, they thanked me, and they immediately moved out into the street.

    There may be a concern here.

    There should be concern here.

    It is irresponsible of the City of Sacramento to employ poisons without any signage or posting of such use of copious amounts of glyphosate products (generic Roundup) Ranger Pro.

    “It is a violation of Federal Law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling. Do not apply this product in a way that will contact workers or other persons. either directly or through drift.“

    Filmed in December: Park Redwoods & Herbicides

    A one minute video, that perhaps adds perspective to the CONCERN:

    Why Are Land Park’s Majestic Redwoods Dying?


    Land Park’s Majestic Redwoods”

    QUESTIONS: What will happen to Land Park’s “Majestic Redwoods” (it appears likely) they will suffer a pre-mature death. Will they be logged or left as snags supporting wildlife habitat? Can they be rescued? Has the City Arborist been informed of their demise?

    Are any remedial actions available to SAVE THESE HISTORIC REDWOODS?


    Has any Sacramento City Agency, or City Council or Sacramento County Parks Planning Department been notified of the pending loss of these “Majestic Redwoods” at Land Park?


    What are the concerns for Public Safety related to the prolonged deaths of these trees? If logged, will Urban Forestry Programs benefit? Will any locally produced lumber be used within the Park System for buildings, benches, fences, etc. (specifically speaking, free of charge)?

    Lasting thoughts, the new two-track road that runs parallel to Land Park Drive must be closed to all vehicular traffic, and, please, Leave The Leaves Alone.
    Respectfully,
    Tom DiFiore

    Copyright Disclaimer

    By invoking the ‘Copyright Disclaimer’ Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.”

    § 107. Limitations on exclusive rights- Fair use: Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

    If you or anyone wish to use copyrighted material from this article for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

    Tom DiFiore

    …I also cook!

    Sunday Bracciole
    Braised


  • Overspray of Glyphosate At Land Park

    Spray and Overspray of Glyphosate At Land Park

    Land Park, Sacramento

    The City of Sacramento has a page devoted to Spray Parks!

    How about a page devoted to Spraying At Parks!

    Danger! Peligro! Spraying At Parks!

    What’s wrong with this picture?

    It was morning, after 7:30 am, when I filmed the over-spraying on Land Park Drive (along the curbs and gutters) plus the decomposed granite pathways, the inside edge and lawn edges of the borders along the dg pathways, the exercise stations, and the circular bare dirt zones around the trees.

    This is a very short film, 2 minutes, that includes the Land Park sections sprayed along 15th Ave, 13th, and 14th Ave, and Land Park Drive.

    This Post is Dedicated to those who are out early for a quiet stroll, or meeting friends, walking with kids, pets – who might not notice wet vegetation along the path, or wet ground and vegetation around the tree where the dog is sniffing….

    Land Park Springtime and Herbicides

    2 minute video

    04/22/2022 Above the little pond across from the Charles Swanston Memorial, in William Land Park

    UPDATE Saturday 04/23/2022

    Recognize Glyphosate Overspray

    2 weeks after the spray 04/22/2022


    During the spraying, I didn’t stick around long enough to get affected. But as the days passed and I thought about the event I had recorded that morning, I wondered if over-spraying of vegetation was common at other Parks.

    Actually, my first question was one of astonishment- Why are they drenching and widening a circular dead zone at the base of trees, with a glyphosate herbicide?

    I decided to visit a few other City Parks and County Parks to see if this method of application of herbicide is a Common practice. Anyone can make a similar comparison by visiting any Sacramento City or County Park. 

    If by chance you notice green plants, and the surrounding areas of dirt, curbs, the decomposed granite pathways, even the gutter, all have a faint orange dusting of color on them (which remains easily visible 48 hours after a spray) then you know. In a few weeks, there will only be dead, brown vegetation.

    *Two days after glyphosate over-spraying; the ground, or curb, the paths, gutter, will all be discolored as shown in additional photos on this blog page. 

    Familiar places for generatoons.
    Downhill to the little pond.
    Looking back up from little pond across the road from the 1924 Charles Swanston Memorial Statue and Fountain
    Whether glyphosate use is harmful or not to water bodies, remains a riddle, wrapped in an enigma. The relevant question here is; WHY HERE?


    Residual half-life Residues, and sub-Lethal Chronic Environmental Exposure

    “In aquatic systems, glyphosate is degraded by microorganisms and attenuated from the water column by sorption to bottom sediments, and in moving waters by dilution. In standing water, the time required for 50% dissipation of glyphosate residues in water depends upon the environmental conditions including temperature, water depth, presence of macrophytes and water: sediment ratios and generally range from a few days to approximately four weeks. Inboth standing and running waters, bottom sediments tend to be a primary sink for glyphosate residues… (Goldsborough and Brown 1993; Feng et al. 1990; Newton et al. 1984; Edge et al 2014) and although sediment residues may be somewhat more persistent, they are also believed to be biologically unavailable due to strong binding in bottom sediments.”

    “HOW LONG DOES GLYPHOSATE REMAIN IN THE SOIL, WATER, PLANTS AND SEDIMENTS AFTER TREATMENT?”

    Reference: [https://forestinfo.ca/faqs/how-long-does-glyphosate-remain-in-the-soil-water-plants-and-sediments-after-treatment/]

    Glyphosate is considered non-persistent in plants, soils, water and sediments. This can be attributed largely to a number of micro-organisms that break down glyphosate for food, removing it from the ecosystem.”


    Micro-organisms Remove It From The Ecosystem
    The focus here, is on Glyphosate (non-persistent, or believed to be biologically unavailable) and evades mention of the main glyphosate metabolite AMPA, the phytotoxic by-product of the glyphosate breakdown process, and of which there is major concern and research devoted to the impacts on soils, crops, and adjacent plants and trees by the commercial agriculture industry.

    Environmental Persistence and Impacts of AMPA
    A more in-depth summary on the subject of Environmental Persistence and Impacts of AMPA to non-target vegetation, soil ecology, earthworms, crop nutrition, and remedial actions, is in order:

    Briefly; glyphosate degrades (in various soil types) by the action of bacteria over time, calculated based on length of days and half-life percentages. Glyphosate degrades into AMPA – the major transformation by-product in soil, sediments and water – aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). 

    Unlike glyphosate, AMPA has been classified as persistent in soils, with a typical half-life of 151 days, but varying from 76 to 240 days depending on field conditions.”

    “AMPA acute toxicity has been described to be low for rats and moderate for fish and aquatic invertebrates.”

    “However, acute assays are generally less sensitive than chronic assays, which provide more realistic results on long-term sublethal effects, based on growth and reproduction.”

    “For instance, the acute assay did not reveal any negative effects of AMPA on biomass and in fact earthworms in AMPA treatments after 7 and 14 days had lower biomass losses than earthworms in the control. On the other hand, at 28 days in the chronic test, biomass losses were significantly higher in all AMPA treatments compared to the control.”

    “The lower biomass found in cocoons and juveniles in soils contaminated with AMPA “might also be related to a higher sensitivity of juveniles than adults to AMPA, which would explain lower growth of juveniles, as has been previously observed. Moreover, the production of more cocoons but lighter -and therefore presumably weaker-individuals, would be associated to weaker juveniles. This suggests that earthworms growing in soils contaminated with AMPA could have a lower physiological ability to develop, grow and reproduce in these soils and to accomplish key ecosystem functions.”

    [https://www.nature.com/articles/srep19731]

    There are numerous ongoing applications of Ranger Pro, the generic Roundup – with the same glyphosate, causing similar rough edged, circular, tidy, dry dirt dead zones around the base of hundreds of trees throughout William Land Park.

    April 22, 2022
    April 22, 2022
    April 22, 2022

    Maybe it can be stopped. 

    Further down from the WPA Rock Garden on 15th Ave; there are no signs apparent of herbicide applications around the base of trees, and there are flowers in the grass, where golfers play through the rough. 

    Curtis Park; by May 17, 2022 application of herbicide to create circular dead zones around the root zone of trees appears to have occurred around the beginning of May.

    Curtis Park May 17, 2022
    Expanding use of herbicides – tree by tree, mile after mile
    William Curtis Park May 17, 2022


    Same sad story.

    Now… Looking To The Future

    In Sacramento’s future looking 2040 Park Planning and Development Documents update, found here:

    https://www.cityofsacramento.org/ParksandRec/Parks/Park-Planning-Development

    The first listed document is titled: 

    Maintaining Park Design Guidelines, and on page 11 of 13, it states:

    “Existing parks shall be redesigned to reduce or eliminate non-recreational turf areas outside of active sports fields or picnic areas in parks and replaced with either 4″ layer of mulch, non-irrigated native grass, irrigated no-mow tall fescue, decomposed granite paving areas or low-maintenance groundcover, all planted with native tree groves wherever possible and appropriate to limit mowing and irrigation.”

    “Naturalized areas shall be designed to include passive recreation such as: picnicking, nature trails with interpretive signage, bikeways, rest areas, horseshoe courts or similar activities.”

    https://www.cityofsacramento.org/-/media/Corporate/Files/ParksandRec/parks-planning/maintainable-park-guidelines.pdf?la=en

    Naturalized Areas…. Is that like when a product label states “Natural Flavors”.

    Existing parks shall be redesigned to reduce or eliminate non-recreational turf…. eliminate with herbicide?

    Apparently there are three categories of value added cultural uses, designated by recreation type: Recreation, passive Recreation, and non-Recreation.

    So… it looks as though passive Recreation only applies to Naturalized areas, and includes everything but Sports.

    And the Naturalized areas will likely require herbicides to keep down the greenery along the bike trails, and horseshoe courts, and picnic tables, and signage… to limit mowing….


    As of April 6th, 2022 – want to know where I think signs should have been placed, and what they would have said?

    Danger! Peligro! Spraying At Parks!

    How about a City/County wide Regional Parks app with dedicated updated page for Spraying At Parks, as a Public Service Announcement

    Tom DiFiore

    Copyright Disclaimer

    By invoking the ‘Copyright Disclaimer’ Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.”

    § 107. Limitations on exclusive rights- Fair use: Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

    If you or anyone wish to use copyrighted material from this article for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

    Tom DiFiore

    I also bake, these are pecan banana breads

  • Walking and Talking Herbicide Overspray At Land Park

    Even just getting out of the car, anyone of us can step in glyphosate.

    The morning ritual in Spring of spraying at parks, for emerging unwanted vegetation occurs almost unnoticed, and poses health risks to anyone nearby, or who may come along even 30 minutes later.

    I suppose it’s even possible that just letting a dog out of the car could expose the animal. And what about the wheels on baby strollers placed at the curb, or near the curb? You may not notice the City Parks Spray Mobile and the worker, who (in the course of standard operating procedure) drenched the curb area where you happen to park, or the ground where you’re walking. You may potentially be breathing a foul tasting air, and getting herbicide on your shoes. Your pets may have their noses and paws in vegetation saturated with herbicide. And kids, they pick up things, and then put their fingers in their mouths.

    More on SOP…. Standard Operating Procedure

    I came out to Land Park this morning (Thursday, April 7, 2022 before 8:00am) to photograph some flowers, and test soil compaction depths around high foot traffic areas and high use areas, to compare with the soil compaction caused by heavy trucks driving daily over the root zones of the Redwoods at Land Park.

    I’ve also been wondering, about something that really stands out at Land Park, and is noticeably un-natural. Where there would be fallen leaves, and green grasses, weeds and flowers that nurture nature and help to keep the living moist, there is only barren dry dirt. Turns out that is another sad, bad story.

    Even worse, a likely unhealthy situation for the Land Park community of residents, health and fitness visitors, dog walkers and wildlife.

    Spraying Parks

    It is irresponsible of the City of Sacramento to employ poisons without any signage or posting of such use of copious amounts of glyphosate products (generic Roundup) Ranger Pro. 

    If you see this truck at the Park, don’t get too close, and watch out for wet vegetation, with a yellow hue, the signs of herbicide spray, and overspray….


    Ranger Pro Herbicide, Land Park, and You

    The Ranger Pro (generic Roundup) EPA listed Product Safety Data Sheet states:

    “PPE is required for early entry to treated areas that is permitted under the Worker Protection Standard and that involves contact with anything that has been treated, such as plants, soil, or water: coveralls, waterproof gloves, shoes, plus socks. and protective eyewear.” That’s common sense for the workers.

    If I understand that correctly, herein lies the tragedy of the commons.

    People and mammals (both pets and wildlife) are most likely to be UNPROTECTED without the above mentioned PPE required during “early entry to treated areas”. How is early entry defined? Target vegetation remains wet for 20-30 minutes at 7:30 am when people are walking pets, leaning on trees to stretch, or using the Park’s exercise stations.

    The worker I saw, had on a simple mask, waterproof gloves and boots, and heavy coat as PPE – no goggles. (I DIDN’T have any protective gear and thus didn’t get too close – I could smell it in the air). And I wonder if the City explained to the worker, the dangers inherent in his job. More on that in a bit.

    I spoke to him briefly, asked him what he was spraying, and he said Ranger.

    I knew it was a herbicide, and, as I continued to photograph this debacle, I noticed people were walking with dogs through wet vegetation recently sprayed just minutes before. And everyone I approached (all were walking dogs), as I expressed my concern that just 5 minutes ago this truck (by then a hundred yards away) had sprayed copious streams of a herbicide called Ranger Pro (generic Roundup), right where they and their dogs were walking, showing them the wet ground and vegetation, they thanked me, and they immediately moved out into the street. There may be a concern here.

    Look closely at the photo immediately below and notice how wet the borders to the decomposed granite path are, and the vegetation, and the base of the tree, where the yellow hue of spraying residue is most obvious. The one dog’s paws and nose were right into the wet surface of the ground and vegetation., a few moments later, another dog – the same thing again.

    The morning’s walk did provide the answer to my earlier question as to why there is a wide circle of barren dry dirt, around the base of trees at Land Park!

    Un-natural and Unnecessary

    Loosely translated perhaps it’s best described as overspray (verb participle noun), I would venture to say the City is way over-spraying (the present perfect progressive/continuous verb form) the once green border of the everyday (and in-use) decomposed granite paths, the curbs, too – that’s both sides of the walking paths, the exercise stations, picnic tables, – and around the base of most of the trees at Land Park!

    Well as they say; The only common thing about Common Sense, is how uncommon it is! I will let the pictures and film show the emerging story. 

    Soil Compaction along the Park perimeter – the Spray Truck in the distance.

    But what is Ranger Pro besides being called  “generic” Roundup? Why would it be of concern to Land Park visitors?

    “Ranger Pro with 41% Glyphosate (same active ingredient as Roundup) is a complete broad spectrum non-selective post-emergent professional herbicide. Ranger Pro is the generic of Roundup Pro, and is equivalent and just as effective as the name brand, only much less expensive. This generic roundup will kill most weeds and grasses. It is formulated as a water-soluble liquid with surfactant, therefore no additional surfactant is needed. Ranger Pro moves through the plant from the point of foliage contact to and into the root system. It is then absorbed into the soil and breaks down naturally, and therefore will not spread through the ground and kill neighboring plants.”

    The Product Description

    “Ranger Pro is a postemergence, systemic herbicide with no residual soil activity. It gives broad-spectrum control of many annual weeds, perennial weeds, woody brush and trees.”

    “Annual weeds are easiest to control when they are small. Best control of most perennial weeds is obtained when treatment is made at late growth stages approaching maturity. “

    “Ranger Pro moves through the plant from the point of foliage contact to and into the root system. Visible effects are a gradual wilting and yellowing of the plant which advances to complete browning of above-ground growth and deterioration of underground plant parts. Effects are visible on most annual weeds within 2 to 4 days, but on most perennial weeds may not occur for 7 days or more.”

    Always use the higher product application rate in the range when weed growth is heavy or dense, or when weeds are growing in an undisturbed (non-cultivated) area. Reduced weed control may result from treating weeds with disease or insect damage, weeds heavily covered with dust, or weeds under poor growing conditions.”

    Signs of a recent Spraying – wet vegetation and dirt.

    The label states:

    “Do not spray foliage to the point of runoff.”

    Way over-sprayed! (I could taste it in the air)

    “Weeds germinating from seed after application will not be controlled. Unemerged plants arising from unattached underground rhizomes or rootstocks of perennials will not be affected by the herbicide and will continue to grow.”

    Which means Re-application will come around in time.

    “Ranger Pro is a broad spectrum non-selective post-emergent professional herbicide that contains 41% glyphosate. The herbicide is a generic version of Roundup Pro, and is equivalent in terms of ingredients, just less expensive.”

    That’s glyphosate saturation

    What’s the Problem?

    “The glyphosate contained in Ranger Pro Herbicide was classified by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in July 2015 as being “probably carcinogenic” to humans. Monsanto, the company that developed glyphosate for use in its Roundup weed killer, currently faces more than 4,000 lawsuits filed on behalf of people who claim they developed lymphoma and other forms of cancer as a result of exposure to the herbicide.”

    Glyphosate Dangers

    “The glyphosate in Ranger Pro Herbicide has been linked to the following serious side effects:”

    Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Large Diffuse B-cell Lymphoma

    Follicular Lymphoma

    Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL)

    Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma


    DANGER! PELIGRO!

    NATION WIDE LYMPHOMA LAWSUITS

    (All 50 States)

    Apparently, if a person “got cancer after using, handling, or being otherwise exposed to Ranger Pro Herbicide or another glyphosate weed killer, you could contact a law firm.”

    Last Updated: March 24, 2022

    “The glyphosate in Roundup is currently the subject of more than 4,000 lawsuits alleging the weed killer caused non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other types of cancer. Seeing as Ranger (Pro) Herbicide contains the exact same ingredient, people injured by it may also qualify to file suit against the manufacturer seeking compensation for their injuries.”

    “HARMFUL IF S\VALLOWED OR INHALED”
    “Do not get in eyes, or on clothing.”

    “Avoid any contact with skin, or breathing spray mist.”

    “Applicators and other handlers (other than mixers and loaders) must “;vear: long-sleeved shin and long pants, shoes plus socks. and protective eyewear. Mixers and loaders must wear long-sleeved shirt and long pants, water proof gloves, shoes, plus socks and protective eye wear. Discard clothing and other absorbent materials that have been drenched or heavily contaminated with this product’s concentrate. Do not reuse them.”

    “It is a violation of Federal Law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling. Do not apply this product in a way that will contact vorkers or other persons. either directly or through drift. Only protected handlers may be in the area during application.”

    “PPE is required for early entry to treated areas that is permitted under the Worker Protection Standard and that involves contact with anything that has been treated. such as plants, soil, or water is: coveralls, waterproof gloves, shoes, plus socks. and protective eyewear.”

    Does the City understand the tragedy of the commons here?
    In terms of day-use visitors, everyday people and pets and wildlife, are most likely to be UNPROTECTED and without the above mentioned PPE required for workers, during their morning walk through treated areas.

    Just another day at the Park!

    Tom DiFiore

    Copyright Disclaimer

    By invoking the ‘Copyright Disclaimer’ Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.”

    § 107. Limitations on exclusive rights- Fair use: Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

    If you or anyone wish to use copyrighted material from this article for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

    Tom DiFiore

    …Yes well, I also cook, and bake, these are bialys, and a roasted tomatillo salsa with the unique Type A local grown Mexicola avocados – just the best avocados

  • Land Park In Sacramento Is Losing It’s Majestic Redwoods

    Land Park is Losing its Redwoods

    Land Park’s Majestic Redwoods Are Dying

    I certainly have respect for those who work hard to care for Land Park. There may be a problem though, with policy directives, at the very least.

    Visitors to Land Park may be curious of why the Redwoods are dying, or what a dying 100 year old Redwood looks like. The first plantings in Land Park were in the decade beginning 1920, and the golf course came along in 1924.

    Sadly it’s pretty obvious, and the causes, fairly easy to understand.

    Viewing The Great Loss
    On Land Park Drive, directly across from the entrance to Sacramento Zoo, at the entrance to parking spaces at Fairytale Town, (further on is the WPA Rock Garden) are huge Redwoods rising from level ground between the sidewalk that parallels Land Park Drive, and the upslope that climbs to easy Fairytale Town parking.

    Once there, simply look upward. Then bring the eyes downward and follow the stem (tree trunk) to the ground where the root zone is and look closely at the two tracks between the dying Redwoods. Anyone can see that on both sides of the two tracks (a two-track is a country road) that the Redwoods are dying.

    View from Fairytale Town Parking facing Sacramento Zoo.

    On the leaf, from the lowest branch to the pinnacle height at the crown, the needles, that once nourished the tree with fog water have become a tragedy of desiccation.

    Desiccation on the leaf surface:
    Fog has been replaced with dirt and dust, road film, dried petroleum residue, microscopic fragments of tire wear and disc brake wear debris – crushed, pulverized, and blown upward over the tops of understory trees, the oaks, elms, and sycamores, in swirling clouds – along with the pulverized litter fall from all species of plants, and the parched runoff of soil erosion in the gutters. Ever wonder where it lands? How far does it travel? What if there is no wind? The City of Trees, has become a landscape of airborne pollutants.

    View a short video <5 minutes:

    Land Park Air Pollutants, Dust Storms of October

    Filmed on two different occasions 19 days apart in one month.

    Below is a video filmed in December – William Land Park Redwood Herbicide

    This one minute video, that perhaps adds perspective to the CONCERN:

    Why Are Land Park’s Majestic Redwoods Dying?

    Like a two-track country road…

    The soil at the root zone is compacted on a daily basis with heavy trucks and trailers, making the rounds, while the drivers get out and walk around to pick up pieces of garbage with 5 gallon buckets or empty the few overflowing trash cans. The over mechanization of Land Park by Park maintenance staff, is in no small way responsible. There is no reason for a puddle to occur here except soil compaction by continuous truck travel – hence the tire ruts.

    8:00 am March 20, 2022 (5 days after a light rain fell)

    Dates of Late March Rains

    Rain March 15 3am-8am and another light rain late night March 27-28

    The resulting puddle stayed until April 5, 2022, as Land Park maintenance staff continued to drive through it, in both directions, further compacting the soil at the root zone of the Redwoods along Land Park Drive. Everyday 4,000-5,000 pound trucks drive in or out, towing trailers, using this route through the mud hole and ruts, compacting the soil root zone of the Redwoods.

    Testing Soil Compaction – with a sharp edged new shovel.

    By April 5, 2022 only 8 days after aforementioned second light rain, a common measured shovel depth of 2 inches was reached (with all my effort and weight).

    Photo of mud hole, where maximum shovel depth of 3 inches was reached, (taken the morning of April 5).


    All the circulating air pollutants mentioned earlier are blown into the air by scheduled vehicular or tractor size assault. (See three photos below)

    Throughout the WPA Rock Garden, the paths, gutters, and around the parking pavement, back pack blowers, those noisy polluting machines, are in use and are another torment to wildlife and morning walkers, and people with their pets.

    Dying Redwoods In A Green Park

    Some of the Redwoods may be drought-stressed, this concern is exacerbated (upon further inspection) by soil compaction and airborne particulate matter <10 microns settling on the surface of the leaves (needles). (Photos 062321)


    The Dying Redwoods at Land Park, are not planting strip trees. In terms of water needs, these Redwoods are more like lawn trees, with regularly scheduled waterings nearby.

    Someone might say that people are trampling the root zone and compacting the soil, which can be true, and may be considered another added impact, but only in the case in 3-4 of the 27 dying Redwoods at Land Park.

    (higher use areas, in terms of foot traffic numbers, picnic areas, even team sports, all show less soil compaction – with deeper shovel depths of 3”- 4” or greater, and are more easily penetrated during simple soil compaction tests)


    National Park research suggests it would take many more people than visit the Redwoods at Land Park, to cause the apparent significant damage at the root zone, known as Soil Compaction. The effects of drought, are for the most part, mitigated at Land Park by the scheduled watering of the lawns. The shovel I used to test soil compaction depths throughout the Park, showed greater compaction only on the truck routes used by staff as they drive around and through the stands of redwoods.

    Pictures show tire track pathways in daily use by trucks with trailers traveling through and around numerous stands of dying Redwoods at Land Park.

    Economic shortcuts, and efficiency of labor costs, are not the only criteria.

    Besides 1) soil compaction impacting trees at the root zone caused by short-cuts for two-track truck routes often towing trailers, there are three more areas of negligent actions wherein haste makes waste: 2) desiccation of the leaf surface by airborne pollutants and particulate matter that rise upward in turbulent clouds of dust; 3) the over use and overspray of Glyphosate for weed control around trees and pathways; 4) lack of consideration of habitat loss affecting seasonal survival of resident or migrating avian species due to an imposed over-mechanized maintenance schedule.

    William Land Park in Sacramento is really a beautiful park.

    WPA 1940 Rock Garden Arbor of Rosa banksiae (Lady banks rose) April 2020


    William Land Park, in Sacramento, is a beautiful park, with almost 400 documented species of wildlife!

    William Land Park iNaturalist Catalog of Documented Species of Animalia

    [https://www.inaturalist.org/places/land-park]

    But… due to: 1) the pace of over-mechanization apparent in increased use of daily ‘maintenance truck’ routes, and 2) the neglectful disregard of the root zone complex and contiguous urban forest canopy, and the various habitats provided by the landscape at Land Park; many of the “Majestic Redwoods” as they are known, are dying due to soil compaction at the root zone and desiccation of the leaf by airborne dust and particulate matter.

    Copious amounts of herbicide over-spraying and overuse, create dry, lifeless zones of dirt around the base of almost every species of tree at Land Park, and along miles of curbs and decomposed granite pathways.

    How Much Herbicide Is Enough?

    This 36 second video clip begs to ask, how much is enough? 

    Effects Of Glyphosate Around The Root Zone, And Curbside; Mid-April 2022

    Yes, the Redwoods could be considered drought stressed, but use your eyes, how many others show similar signs of drying? At Land Park, the months of June and October are documented as times of great dust storms generated by tractor mounted blowers; with enormous dust clouds visible and the machines audible blocks away. It’s hard to even see the trees, or the park.

    This dust settles on the leaves, and needles of trees., leading to desiccated surfaces and clogged stomata (pores), and impacts to photosynthesis and chlorophyll production (along with possible toxins from glyphosate or AMPA residues). In the video at top of this post, the point is well illustrated having combined two different days of footage 19 days apart in October.

    As if desiccated leaf surfaces weren’t enough, adding to that:

    Soil Compaction Destroys Soil Structure

    Most of the roots of a redwood tree are only three to ten feet below the soil surface. The shallow root systems can extend over one hundred feet radius from the base, intertwining with the roots of other redwoods. In groves, this increases their stability during strong winds and floods.

    Trees suck water upward through microscopic pipes called xylem. As water molecules evaporate from the pores of leaves at the top of the tree, other molecules are pulled up from the roots to replace them, in a journey that takes a few weeks from root to treetop.

    Compaction destroys soil structure, thus increasing density, carbon dioxide concentrations (plant roots need oxygen) and heat build-up. Additionally, it creates surface runoff rather than allowing water to penetrate to the roots. Compaction subsequently decreases the amount of large pore space available, as well as oxygen in the soil, water penetration, and nutrient influx.

    Business As Usual, just another day…. (adjacent to Land Park Drive)

    When compaction increases soil density, root elongation is inhibited, causing poor development of root systems essential for summer survival Plant roots need oxygen to survive, and as the density of a compacted soil increases, carbon dioxide and other toxic gasses do not readily move from the root zone. Compacted soils are hotter in the summer and colder in the winter.

    This route should be closed to vehicles

    Photo of Land Park staff maintenance truck and trailer leaving the mud hole ruts of soil compaction on March 31, just 3 days after a second light rain fell.

    This truck route is shown below and the dying Redwoods on either side of the two-track. The leaves, (called needles on Redwoods), are dry and brown. The Latin word sempervirens means “always green,” or “evergreen.” Sequoia sempervirens… are the coast redwood, planted at Land Park as lawn trees.

    Redwoods are coniferous trees. All genre included in this family (Pinales) are related by having seed cones in which each scale is fused with its bract, the ovules are erect, and the paired seed wings, if present, come from the seed coat, and needles for leaves. Sequoia is the genus of the coast redwood.

    The combined impacts of soil compaction and desiccated leaf surface structures are of great detriment to the drought-stressed Redwoods.

    Leaf wetness may increase plant hydration in two ways, either by providing a direct water subsidy accessible through foliar uptake that increases tissue water content, or by suppressing leaf water loss to the atmosphere, thereby facilitating more efficient foliar hydration along with stem xylem water from the root zone.

    In spring and summer, at Land Park, watering of the lawns, causes formation fog at night, which rises to become fog drip, and along with stem flow, returns to the surrounding landscape, and the trees are able to nourish their own roots and other plants

    While rainfall would provide the larger amount of water for use at the root zone, when fog water becomes available in the root zone during significant fog inundation, root uptake contributes again, to water acquisition for redwoods, and local understory plantings at Land Park, since plant roots are specialized for water absorption. Soil compaction negates this action as seen below where an unnecessary two-track has been causing pre-mature die-of of the Redwoods.

    This two-track should be closed to all vehicular access.
    The two-track by April 14, is becoming a two-way thoroughfare.
    April 12, 2022 The Dying Redwoods

    Shown below; a new depression of soil compaction is appearing 150 feet from the main mud hole with the three dying Redwoods, along Land Park Drive.


    Fog, Leaf Wetness, Evapotranspiration, Fog Drip, Root Fog Water Uptake:

    The Journey Of Water

    Whether by light rain or fog, when water accrues on plant surfaces beyond a certain storage capacity, water will drip from the leaves onto soil or may make it to the soil via stemflow.

    The needles have a thick cuticle, the stomata are recessed and each stomatal pore is capped by an epicuticular wax plug. The way Redwoods deal with dry conditions is they close their stomata, holes on the leaf surface, that allow water to escape and capture CO2.

    Science investigations (field research) have revealed that numerous, brief fog events are accompanied by indications of sap flow reversal, the largest magnitude and therefore most definitive flow reversals were seen when fog events were heavy, and sap flow reversals were measured simultaneously throughout all parts of the tree which showed a whole-plant, leaf–soil flux is involved.

    This positive impact is sufficient enough to be observed at the whole plant level and suggests that foliar uptake does contribute meaningfully to recharge of water stores within plants, the repair of cavitated conduits which drive cell expansion and even leads to increased carbon fixation.

    Big trees capture a disproportionate amount of carbon dioxide, making this action a bonus in California’s Climate Credit.

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    Tom DiFiore

    Ah, there is a Mandolin in my life!